Welcome to the RIT Libraries Citation Style Guides! While writing proper citations is an important part of any research paper or project, it can be challenging to know how to get started. The citation guides below will walk you through the structure of some of the most common citations, providing examples, formatting information, and other tips to help you along the way. If you have any questions or need more information about a specific format, please consult the official manual for the designated citation style or contact an RIT Librarian at firstname.lastname@example.org. If you don't know which style to use, remember to check your syllabus or contact your professor.
Choose a style below to get started!
The APA citation style is the official citation style of the American Psychological Association. The style provides guidance on how to format and place in-text citation and how to style the reference citations. Though created to support psychology, this author-date format is a great style for any social science subject.
Here are some important characteristics of APA to keep in mind as you get started:
- References contain four main parts: Author, Date, Title of work, and Source
- The author's last name comes first; Use initials only for first and middle names
- Italicize titles of whole works, but not chapter or article titles
- In-text citations include an author/date combination and must also appear in the reference list
- The Reference list is organized alphabetically by author
MLA is the official citation style for the Modern Language Association. MLA is designed for the humanities, but can be used for any subject area. MLA citation style formatting has changed over the years and is currently in its seventh edition.
Here are some important characteristics of MLA to keep in mind as you get started:
- References contain four main parts: Author, Title of the work, Publication information, and Date
- The author’s last name comes first; Use a first name and middle name if written as such
- Use quotation marks to denote works that are part of larger works such as articles, chapters of books, or essays
- In-text citations include the author’s last name and a page reference
- The Works Cited list is organized alphabetically by author
IEEE Citation is the official citation style for The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The IEEE style uses a numbered footnote framework for the in-paper notations. The Reference List is in numerical order according to the occurrence of the citations within the paper. The style is used in IEEE publications and lends itself well to documenting engineering research papers.
Here are some important characteristics of IEEE to keep in mind as you get started:
- References contain four main parts: Author, Paper title, Periodical title, and Date
- Use the author’s first and middle initials combined with a last name
- Italicize the titles of periodicals, books, conference proceedings, handbooks, and manuals
- Use quotation marks to denote works that are part of larger works such as articles, chapters of books, or confernce papers
- In-text citations are sequential as are citations in the References list