Presenter, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of speech [Medium]. Retrieved from URL

In-text only: (A. Presenter, personal communication, Date of presentation)


Obama, B. (2009, January 20). Inaugural Address [MP3 file]. Retrieved from

In-text: (Obama, 2009)

Earhart, A. (1935). Amelia Earhart on women in flight [Audio file]. Retrieved from

In-text: (Earhart, 1935)


Speeches or presentations that you attended are not retrievable by others so do not need to be included in the References list. Instead, include an in-text citation for personal communication and provide context within the body of the paper (see first example). If you have access to a recording of the speech or presentation, follow the format shown in the second and third examples. If you are citing the text of a speech that you found in a book or on a website, cite the document as the respective source type.


This source type is not covered by the APA style guidelines.
Example(s) adapted from:
APA: 6.20
APA (ER): no. 53