[1]F. Lastname, "Title of artwork," Date of Artwork, Title of Website. City, State, Country: Publisher, Month Day, Year. [Online]. Available: URL or Database Name, Accessed on: Month Day Year.

[2]F. Lastname, Title of Artwork, Repository or Collection, City, State, Country, Date of Artwork. [Medium]. Viewed on: Month Day, Year.

[3]F. Lastname, "Title of artwork," Date of Artwork, in Title of Book or Anthology, F. Lastname, Ed. City, State, Country: Publisher, Year, Page(s).

In-text: In-text citations are treated as if they were footnotes and are enclosed in square brackets [1].


[1]J. M. W. Turner, "Norham castle, sunrise," c. 1845, Tate. Tate, London, UK. [Online]. Available:, Accessed on: Dec. 12, 2017.

[2]Photograph of Sagrada Familia, Trip & Rate, Accessed on: Dec. 12, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[3]J. M. Eder and E. Valenta, Zwei Goldfische und ein Seefisch (Christiceps argentatus), Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, USA, 1896. [Photogravure]. Viewed on: Dec. 12, 2017.

[4]E. Manet, "La Rue Mosnier aux drapeaux," 1878, in World Art: The Essential Illustrated History, K. Fitzpatrick, Ed. London, UK: Flame Tree Publishing, 2006, p. 215.


IEEE does not provide specific guidance on how to cite images and photographs. Cite images on a website as you would a webpage (see the first and second example); cite images in a book or anthology as you would the chapter of a book (see the fourth example). Consider including an access date for online materials, especially if you do not know the date of publication; when the access date is used in place of the date of publication, place it immediately after the publisher preceded by a comma (see p. 39, "Books, Monographs: Examples," 4). If you do not know the title of an image, you can assign an appropriate title, but do not enclose it in quotes (see second example). If you know the original date of the image or photograph include it immediately after the title of the artwork, before the title of the website or anthology (see first and fourth example). For artwork viewed in-person, cite it more as a live presentation adding the repository or collection after the title of the work. You may also choose to include the medium in square brackets to indicate that you are not citing a traditional text-based source, along with a "View on" date to indicate when you viewed the item (see third example).

Questions? Contact an RIT Librarian at

IEEE - Adapted from: Papers Presented at Conferences (p. 37); Books (p. 35); Books, Monographs (p. 38-39)