One of the most important features of a research paper assignment is proper documentation of the sources of information used (see our guide/website on Copyright and Plagiarism). The vehicles for providing this documentation are footnotes (or parenthetical references) at the point in the paper where the information is presented and a bibliography or reference list of all sources used at the end of the paper. This guide includes samples of parenthetical references and bibliographic entries using the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) 2001. Please see the manual itself (REF BF76.7 .P82 2001) for more information or examples. A list of websites with additional examples is attached.
IN-TEXT CITATIONS: (Examples in this section provided by Rudy Pugliese, Linda Coppola or from the APA Manual)
If you are citing a work by a single author, use the surname (do not include suffixes such as Jr.) and the year of publication separated by a comma in parentheses:
In a recent study of reaction time (Rogers, 1994)
If you have just stated the author's name in the text, put the year of publication only in parentheses:
Peplau (1985) defines loneliness as a difference between desired and achieved social relationships.
If you are citing a work with two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in text:
Loneliness is inversely related to communication competence (Reinking & Bell, 1991).
If there are fewer than six authors, cite all of them the first time and subsequently use the first author's name followed by "et al." and the year:
The misbehaviors of teachers have been investigated (Kearney, Plax, Hays, & Ivey, 1991).
Misbehaviors were found to reduce to three factors: incompetence, offensiveness, and indolence (Kearney et al., 1991).
If a work has six or more authors, cite only the first author's last name followed by "et al." and the year:
Communication apprehension has many correlates (McCroskey et al., 1981).
If you are including a quotation or referring to a specific part of the source, list the page number(s) after the year:
"A lack of career success may lower men's value in the marketplace of relationships" (Reinking & Bell, 1991, p. 368).
If the source is electronic and does not have page numbers, use paragraph numbers, if available:
As Myers (2000, para. 5) aptly phrases it, "positive emotions are both an end - better to live fulfilled, with joy [and other positive emotions] - and a means to a more caring and healthy society."
If you are citing an entire website and not a specific part of the site, reference the website in the text (no need to include in the bibliography):
Douglass (http://douglass.speech.nwu.edu/) is a well organized site for locating American speeches.
Personal Communications, Oral Interviews, Memos, Letters, Conversations, e-mail communication, etc.
Unpublished communications should not be listed with references, because the text is not available for others to examine. They are referenced in the paper only. Include the name, type of communication, and date. Example of parenthetical citation in text:
R. Pugliese (personal communication, March 23, 1990) also verified this.
Magazine/Journal Article, Basic Form for articles, One Author example, Two Author examples:
Author, A. A. (Date of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle of article.
Magazine/Journal Title, Volume
number (issue number if each issue begins on page 1), pages.
Lacayo, R. (1991, April 22). Global warming: A new warning. Time, 137(16), 32.
Smith, M. L., & Finn, J. (1997, October). The use of the World Wide Web
by undergraduate social work
education programs. Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work, 3(1), 71-84.
Stacks, D. W., & Hickson, M. (1991). The communication investigator: Teaching
research methods to
undergraduates. Communication Quarterly, 39, 351-357.
Encyclopedia Article, One Author example:
Bergman, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica
(Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago:
If an entry has no author, begin the reference with the entry title and publication date.
Newspaper Article, One Author example with discontinuous pages:
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status.
The Washington Post, pp. A1,
If an article has no author, begin the reference with the article title and publication date.
Book/Edited Book, Basic Form for book or single entity, Book with one author, Book with two editors:
Author/Editor. (Date of Publication). Title: Subtitle. (Edition). Place of Publication: Publisher.
Buss, A. H. (1980). Self-consciousness and social anxiety. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.
Chickering, A. W., & Smith, L. E. (Eds.). (1981). The modern American college:
Responding to the new
realities of diverse students and a changing society. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Article with Two Authors in an Edited Book:
Good, T. L., & Brophy, J. E. (1986). School effects. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.),
Handbook of research on
teaching (3rd ed., pp. 570-602). New York: Macmillan.
Doctoral Dissertation abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International:
Byerly, J. (1982). An investigation of factors that condition student enrollment
in broadcast courses at
Coastline Community College (Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 1981). Dissertation
Abstracts International, 43, 58A.
Article in Proceedings of Meetings or Symposia:
Brock, D. (1981). New public broadcasting programs and services. In J. Brown
(Ed.), Technology and
education: Policy, implementation, evaluation. Proceedings of the National Conference on
Technology and Education, January 26-28, (pp. 30-59). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Unpublished Convention Paper:
McCornack, S. A. (1988, May). When lovers become leery: The lie-bias of
suspicion. Paper presented at
the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans, LA.
Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation:
Wilfley, D. E. (1989). Interpersonal analysis of bulimia: Normal-weight
and obese. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, University of Missouri, Columbia.
Smith, I. M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Lehman, E. (Producer), & Nichols, M. (Director). (1966). Who's afraid of
Virginia Woolf? [Motion
picture]. Burbank, CA: Warner Brothers.
Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/Lehrer
news hour. [Television
broadcast]. New York and Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting Service.
SAMPLE REFERENCES FOR ELECTRONIC MATERIAL: Remember for all of these examples the first line is at the left margin and all succeeding lines are indented; titles that appear here in italic should be in italic; do not underline. (Examples in this section are based on those in the APA Manual.)
See example for citing an entire website under In-Text Citations.
Bryant, P. (1999). Biodiversity and conservation. Retrieved October
4, 1999, from
Bell, S. H. & Gallagher, L. J. (2001, February). Prime-age adults without
children or disabilities: The
"least deserving of the poor"—or are they? Retrieved April 20, 2001, from Assessing the New
Federalism: an Urban Institute Project Web site: http://newfederalism.urban.org/html/series_b/b26/
Pellegrino, J. (n.d.). Seamus Heaney. Retrieved October 4, 1999, from
the Internet Poetry Archive Web
Fine, M., & Kurdek, L. A. (1993). Reflections on determining authorship credit
and authorship order on
faculty-student collaborations. American Psychologist, 48, 1141-1147. Retrieved June 7, 1999, from
Daniel, R. T. (1995). The history of Western music. Britannica online: Macropaedia. Retrieved June 14,
1999, from http://www.eb.com:180/cgi-bin/g:DocF=macro/5004/45/0.html
Kramer, J. F. (December 1999/January 2000). Valuing accounting practices. The
Accountant, 44(10), 32. Retrieved April 4, 2000, from ABI/Inform Global via Proquest Direct.
Butz, A., Beshers, C. & Feiner, A. (1998). Of vampire mirrors and privacy
lamps: Privacy management in
multi-user augmented environments. Proceedings of the 11th annual ACM symposium on user
interface software and technology, 171-172. Retrieved April 20, 2001, from ACM Digital Library.
Holmes, M. D. (1998). Perceptions of abusive police practices in US-Mexico
border community. Social
Science Journal, 35, 107-118. Abstract retrieved April 4, 2000, from Criminal Justice Abstracts via
Henneberger, M. (1995, June 8). Republicans battle party on arts funds. The
New York Times. Retrieved
April 4, 2000, from Lexis Nexis Academic Universe/General News.
See example for citing a personal communication under In-Text Citation
APA Documentation Style U. Wisconsin at Madison Writing Center Writer's Handbook. http://www.wisc.edu/writetest/Handbook/DocAPAReferences.html#journal article
Citation and Reference Formats from the Gallaudet U. English Works! web page. http://depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/writing/main/indexframe.htm
Citation Style For Research Papers by Robert Delaney, Long Island U. based on the 2001 Publication Manual and the APA update. http://www.liunet.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citation.htm
Electronic Reference Formats Recommended by the American Psychological Association official tips from the 5th ed. of the APA Manual. http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html
Comments and suggestions welcome.
Maintained by: Linda Coppola