Is this paraphrasing or plagiarism? - example four 

Original Passage: If we are to take Tolkien's work as he wrote it and as he clearly wanted his audience to read it—as a true mythology, with all the layering and multiple narrators and overlapping texts and variant versions that characterize mythologies in the real world—then we must allow that, like those real-world mythologies, all the parts, even the apparently inconsequential ones, are in the greater service of the whole. To read his work as anything less is to do a disservice, perhaps even a violence, to it. * 

Summary: Tolkien wanted his many writings to be viewed like a real mythology, including different versions of the same stories written by different people. All his works, both famous and less-known, are important as part of the same overall mythology. A reader who treats Tolkien's work otherwise is not doing it justice (Flieger 84).

Is this paraphrasing or plagiarism?

Paraphrasing! This time, the author has written the summary in her own words, changing it significantly from the original passage. The ideas presented in the original passage remain, but the words are now hers. She has also given the original author credit.

 * Flieger, Verlyn. Interrupted Music: the Making of Tolkien's Mythology. Kent, OH: Kent State UP, 2005. Print.